Послетекстовые упражнения

Лексический минимум

include (v) – включать

colour (n) – цвет

definite (adj) – определённый

absorb (v) – всасывать

amount (n) – количество

connect (v) – соединять, связывать

application (n) – применение

destroy (v) – разрушать

protect (v) – защищать

surface (n) – поверхность

ability (n) – способность

cause (v) – вызывать, являться предпосылкой

possess (v) – владеть

resume (v) – возобновлять (форму), восстанавливать,
приниматься опять

Ознакомьтесь с определениями, принятыми
в научно-технической литературе.

density – плотность

capacity – ёмкость; объём

heat capacity – теплоёмкость

electrical conductivity – электропроводимость

thermal conduction Послетекстовые упражнения – теплопроводность

solid – твёрдый

liquid – водянистый

conductor – проводник

electric current – электронный ток

corrodent – корродирующее вещество

medium – среда (ед. ч.); media – среды (мн. ч.)

coating – покрытие

oxide film – оксидная плёнка

external load – наружняя нагрузка

impact – удар, динамическое воздействие

impact strength – ударная вязкость

shape (n,v) – форма, сформировывать

decomposition – распад, расщепление

composition – состав, соединение, структура

Прочтите и переведите текст.

Metals and their properties

Metals Послетекстовые упражнения are widely used in industry because of their properties.

Physical properties. The physical properties of metals include colour, density, melting temperature, thermal conduction, heat capacity, electrical conduction and magnetism.

All metals have different colours, for example, copper is reddish brown, aluminium is silvery white and gold is yellow metallic Послетекстовые упражнения element. Density is the mass per unit volume. Melting is the conversion of a metal from the solid into the liquid state at a definite melting temperature or melting point. Thermal conduction is the property of metal to transfer heat. Silver, copper and aluminium are the best conductors of heat Послетекстовые упражнения. Heat capacity is the ability of a metal to absorb a definite amount of heat during heating. Electrical conductivity is the property of metal to conduct electric current. Copper and aluminium have high electric conductivity that’s why they are used in the production of wires. Magnetism is the property of Послетекстовые упражнения metal connected with magnetic interaction. Iron, nickel, cobalt and their alloys are called ferromagnetic alloys and find a wide application in the production of electric motors, generators, transformers and telephones.

Chemical properties. If metals or alloys corrode, it means that they are slowly destroyed by the Послетекстовые упражнения effect of air, water, chemicals and other corrodents. The chemical decomposition of materials under the action of corrodents is known as corrosion. Chemical corrosion takes place in a medium that does not conduct electric current while electrochemical corrosion is caused by the action of electrolytes on metals. To protect Послетекстовые упражнения metals against corrosion, metal surfaces are coated with materials that are resistant to corrosion such as paints, enamels, oxide films.

Mechanical properties. Mechanical properties of metals include strength, hardness, elasticity, toughness. Strength is the resistance of a metal to external loads and stresses. Hardness is the ability of a metal Послетекстовые упражнения to resist surface deformation.

Elasticity is the ability of a metal to resume its original size and shape.

Toughness (impact strength) is the resistance of a metal to impacts.

In addition to physical, chemical and mechanical properties, metals also possess technological properties.

Послетекстовые упражнения

1. Переведите последующие слова и словосочетания:

Из-за их Послетекстовые упражнения параметров; физические характеристики; теплопроводность; теплоёмкость; единица объёма; определённая точка плавления; серебристо-белый; передавать тепло; всасывать тепло; определённое количество; проводить электронный ток; магнитное взаимодействие; ферромагнитные сплавы; под воздействием веществ, вызывающих коррозию; происходит в среде; чтоб защитить металлы от коррозии; краски, эмали; восстанавливать начальный размер; не считая (в добавлении к Послетекстовые упражнения); владеть технологическими качествами; оказывать сопротивление деформации.

2. Переведите последующие слова, обращая внимание
на суффиксы и префиксы:

to conduct – conductor – conductance – conductivity

to use – useful – useless – usage – to misuse

to act – action – active – activity – interaction

to produce – production – product – producer – productivity

to compose – composition – composite – decomposition

to form – form – formation – deformation

to add – addition – additional

to solidify Послетекстовые упражнения – solid – solidification

to define – definite – indefinite – definition

to resist – resistance – resistant

to generate – generator –generation

to transform – transformer – transformation

3. Прочтите и переведите последующие определения и попробуйте уяснить их:

property – a quality that a substance (metal) has

deformation – a change in the usual shape of something

conductor – something that allows electricity or heat to travel along it or through it

alloy – a metal Послетекстовые упражнения that consists of two or more metals mixed together

chemical – a substance used in chemistry or produced by a chemical process

solid – hard with a fixed shape, not a liquid or a gas

shape – the way something looks, works or is organized

heat – warmth or the quality of being hot

4. Ответьте на вопросы.

1. What properties of metals do you Послетекстовые упражнения know?

2. What are the physical properties of metals?

3. What is density?

4. What process is called melting?

5. What metals are the best conductors of heat?

6. What is heat capacity?

7. What metals have high electric conductivity?

8. What is corrosion?

9. Where does chemical corrosion take place?

10. How do we protect metals Послетекстовые упражнения against corrosion?

11. What mechanical properties of metals do you know?

12. Is there any difference between hardness and strength?

13. What is toughness?

14. Do metals possess technological properties?

Grammar (дом. зад. на 23.11.17)


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